The American Board of Rehabilitation Psychology (ABRP) was incorporated as the certifying board for competence in Rehabilitation Psychology in 1995. It has been a member board of the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) since 1997. 

Rehabilitation Psychology is a specialty area within professional psychology that assists the individual with an injury or illness which may be chronic, traumatic, and/or congenital, including the family, in achieving optimal physical, psychological, and interpersonal functioning. The focus of rehabilitation psychology is on the provision of services consistent with the level of impairment, disability, and handicap relative to the personal preferences, needs, and resources of the individual with a disability. The rehabilitation psychologist consistently involves interdisciplinary teamwork as a condition of practice and services within a network of biological, psychological, social, environmental, and political considerations in order to achieve optimal rehabilitation goals.

The process of attaining board certification in Rehabilitation Psychology is similar to most other ABPP specialties, requiring submission of applications and credentials to determine if eligibility criteria are met, submission and review of practice samples, and successful completion of an Oral Examination. ABRP was one of the first ABPP Boards to employ a mentoring process to assist and guide candidates through the entire process of application, practice sample, and Oral Examination.